Syllabus Philosophy 160 Spring 2017

Deductive Logic II


Catalog Description

Further study of deductive logic. Topics include: principles of inference for quantified predicate logic; connectives; quantifiers; relations; sets; modality; properties of formal logical systems, e.g. consistency and completeness; and interpretations of deductive systems in mathematics, science, and ordinary language. Prerequisite: CSC 28 or PHIL 60 or instructor permission. Units: 3.0

Informal Description

In this course we will begin with methods of proof in propositional logic, quickly reacquainting ourselves with the tree method of proof as well as natural deduction. We will then learn to do mathematical induction and go on to prove some of the basic meta-logical properties of propositional logic, including its completeness, soundness and decidability. We will then (re)acquaint ourselves with natural deduction and trees in predicate logic, and extensions of predicate logic to identity, functions and membership (i.e., set theory.), followed by an examination of the basic meta-logical properties of predicate logic, including completeness, soundness and undecidability. We will examine Cantor's set-theoretic development of infinity and an outline of Gödel's incompleteness theorems. We will examine the basic nature of higher-order logics.  We will finish by learning some systems of modal logic and non-classical logics. 

By the end of the course you will be able to:

(1) Do proofs in propositional and predicate logic.
(2) Do proofs by induction.
(3) Summarize the basic significant meta-logical properties of propositional logic.
(4) Summarize the basic significant meta-logical properties of predicate logic.
(5) Prove basic properties of finite sets and related concepts.
(6) Explain basic properties of infinite sets and related concepts.
(7) Summarize the structure and implications of Gödel's first incompleteness theorem.
(8) Summarize the nature of higher order logics and perform simple proofs.
(9) Summarize the significance of modal logic and related concepts.
(10) Do proofs in propositional modal logic.
(11) Summarize the motivation of non-classical logics.
(12) Do basic proofs in some types of non-classical logic.

Course Requirements


There will be three in-class tests worth 25 points each. The third test occurs during the final exam period. It will be somewhat comprehensive and will be designed to take the entire period. If you perform better on the third test than on one of the previous two tests, the grade on the lowest of the two previous tests will be raised to the grade you received on the final. This is true even if the previous lowest grade is a zero due to missing the test.


There will be homework assigned for each class meeting after the first week. Homework is assigned at the What's Up link. Each homework will identify specific problems and/or questions that must be submitted at the beginning  of class.  You may not turn in homework if you do not come to class. Homework receives a grade between 0 and 1 inclusive.  (See grading rubric below.) As there will be 28 homework assignments, you may accrue up to 28 points. However, your final grade is assigned on the basis of a 25 point maximum for homework. This means that you can miss 3 homeworks (and therefore be absent 3 times) and still accrue the maximum grade on homework.  If you receive more than 25 points on homework it will count as extra credit.

Extra Credit

Besides the extra credit possibility noted in the Homework section above, there are two other small forms of extra credit available.

Nammour symposium

In April the Philosophy department sponsors the Nammour Symposium, which includes a student essay competition.  Any student who makes (in my judgment) a serious submission to the Nammour Symposium will receive 3 points of extra credit. Any student whose submission is one of the winners of the Nammour Symposium will receive 5 points of extra credit.  (Note, this means the maximum one can win for entering the Nammour is 5, not 8.)  To be considered a serious entry, an essay must be done according to the published instructions for the contest, written in college level English with no elementary writing errors, and be (in my judgment) of a quality that would achieve at least a B in an upper-division philosophy class. If you are a winner, you will only receive winning credit if you present your paper publicly on the student panel as required by the contest instructions.

Course evaluations

There are two points of extra credit available for doing course evaluations at the end of the semester. This works as follows: The percentage of students in the class who complete the course evaluation will be multiplied by 2. The product will be added to every students point total. For example, if 80% of students do the evaluations then 1.6 points will be added to every student's final grade. 


 Including extra credit there are 110 points possible, but your grade is calculated on the basis of 100.

 QuantityValueMax Possible
Tests 3 25 75
Homework 28 1 28
Course evaluations 1 2 2
Essay competition 1 5 5
Total points possible  110
Total basis  100

Sample calculation for Morgan
Tests 65
Homework 15
Course evaluations 1.4
Essay competition 0
Total points81.4 

Final letter grades are assigned on a standard scale. 92% and above = A, 90-91% = A-, 88-89% = B+, 82- 87% = B, 80-81% = B-, etc. Fractional point totals are rounded up from .5 and down from < .5 You and only you are responsible for monitoring your performance in this course.  Be sure to pay close attention to the drop and withdrawal deadlines in the second page of this document.

Late  policy

No assignments may be submitted  late. Under extreme documented  circumstances you may arrange to take a test early. 


 Keep up in this course! Logic is a skill.  Learning it is similar to learning math or a foreign language in that it is cumulative and that it requires you to work steadily.  For the vast majority of students it is not possible to do well on logic tests  by cramming.  

Academic honesty

You are free and encouraged to study together outside of class.  However, testing is non collaborative and subject to the CSUS academic honesty policy, which you may read at:  Academic Honesty Policy & Procedures.   Students caught cheating during any test will be failed in the course and referred to Student Affairs for disciplinary action.  

Course materials

You are not required to purchase any reading materials for this course. The primary text for this course is Logics, by John Nolt.  An electronic copy will be available free on Blackboard. It is possible to rent or purchase used hard copies of this book on Amazon. All other materials will be provided online or in Blackboard. The material from the first 3 weeks of the semester will be drawn from the instructor's Philosophy 60 course, which uses the Schaum's Easy Outline of Logic as the primary text. This book is co-authored by John Nolt and employs the notation and proof procedures employed in Logics.

A note on systems and notations

Some of you will have learned introductory symbolic logic elsewhere, and will more than likely have learned different notations and slightly different systems of proof.  It will be necessary for you to use the notations and proof procedures employed in this course.  The first three weeks of the course is dedicated to review partly for this purpose.

Students with special needs

Students who have special learning or testing needs must notify the instructor  by the end of the second week of the semester.  Students who fall into this category must visit SSWD Lassen Hall 1008 (916) 278-6955 with appropriate   documentation. This is the link to the SacState SSWD page.

Communicating with instructor

By far the most effective means of communicating with the instructor outside of class is by e-mail.  Unless you send an email late at night, you will normally receive an answer within a few hours. Re-send your e-mail if you do not.  When communicating  with  instructor by e-mail, observe the guidelines at this link.



    Minor changes in dates, times and the schedule of readings are subject to revision at the discretion of the instructor.